Zalmoxis The Vanishing God Pdf Free
The wolf is a national symbol of Chechnya. According to folklore, the Chechens are "born of a she-wolf", as included in the central line in the national myth. The "lone wolf" symbolizes strength, independence and freedom. A proverb about the teips (clans) is "equal and free like wolves".
Zalmoxis The Vanishing God Pdf Free
However, legends surrounding Saint Francis of Assisi show him befriending a wolf. According to the Fioretti, the city of Gubbio was besieged by the Wolf of Gubbio, which devoured both livestock and men. Francis of Assisi, who was living in Gubbio at the time took pity on the townsfolk, and went up into the hills to find the wolf. Soon fear of the animal had caused all his companions to flee, but the saint pressed on and when he found the wolf he made the sign of the cross and commanded the wolf to come to him and hurt no one. Miraculously the wolf closed his jaws and lay down at the feet of St. Francis. "Brother Wolf, you do much harm in these parts and you have done great evil ..." said Francis. "All these people accuse you and curse you... But brother wolf, I would like to make peace between you and the people." Then Francis led the wolf into the town, and surrounded by startled citizens he made a pact between them and the wolf. Because the wolf had "done evil out of hunger" the townsfolk were to feed the wolf regularly, and in return, the wolf would no longer prey upon them or their flocks. In this manner Gubbio was freed from the menace of the predator. Francis, ever the lover of animals, even made a pact on behalf of the town dogs, that they would not bother the wolf again.
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I am told by the Greeks who dwell on the shores of the Hellespont and the Pontus, that this Zalmoxis was in reality a man, that he lived at Samos, and while there was the slave of Pythagoras son of Mnesarchus. After obtaining his freedom he grew rich, and leaving Samos, returned to his own country. The Thracians at that time lived in a wretched way, and were a poor ignorant race; Zalmoxis, therefore, who by his commerce with the Greeks, and especially with one who was by no means their most contemptible philosopher, Pythagoras to wit, was acquainted with the Ionic mode of life and with manners more refined than those current among his countrymen, had a chamber built, in which from time to time he received and feasted all the principal Thracians, using the occasion to teach them that neither he, nor they, his boon companions, nor any of their posterity would ever perish, but that they would all go to a place where they would live for aye in the enjoyment of every conceivable good. While he was acting in this way, and holding this kind of discourse, he was constructing an apartment underground, into which, when it was completed, he withdrew, vanishing suddenly from the eyes of the Thracians, who greatly regretted his loss, and mourned over him as one dead. He meanwhile abode in his secret chamber three full years, after which he came forth from his concealment, and showed himself once more to his countrymen, who were thus brought to believe in the truth of what he had taught them. Such is the account of the Greeks.
Nor need we specially admire those (above mentioned professional) legislators. Pythagoras had a slave by the name of Zamolxis, hailing from Thrace. After hearing Pythagoras's discourses, and obtaining his freedom, he returned to the Getae, and there, as has already been mentioned at the beginning of this work, exhorted the citizens to fortitude, persuading then that the soul is immortal. So much so is this that even at present all the Galatians and Trallians, and many others of the Barbarians, persuade their children that the soul cannot be destroyed, but survives death, so that the latter is not to be feared, so that (ordinary) danger is to be met with a firm and manly mind. For instructing the Getae in these things, and for having written laws for them, Zamolxis was by them considered as the greatest of the gods.-- ch.30.
95. For myself, I have been told by the Greeks who dwell beside the Hellespont and Pontus that this Salmoxis was a man who was once a slave in Samos, his master being Pythagoras, son of Mnesarchus; presently, after being freed and gaining great wealth, he returned to his own country. Now the Thracians were a meanly-living and simple witted folk, but this Salmoxis knew Ionian usages and a fuller way of life than the Thracian; for he had consorted with Greeks, and moreover with one of the greatest Greek teachers, Pythagoras; wherefore he made himself a hall, where he entertained and feasted the chief among his countrymen, and taught them that neither he nor his guests nor any of their descendants should ever die, but that they should go to a place where they would live for ever and have all good things. While he was doing as I have said and teaching this doctrine, he was all the while making him an underground chamber. When this was finished, he vanished from the sight of the Thracians, and descended into the underground chamber, where he lived for three years, the Thracians wishing him back and mourning him for dead; then in the fourth year he appeared to the Thracians, and thus they came to believe what Salmoxis had told them. Such is the Greek story about him.
Gebeleizis, or Nebeleizis, was the Thracians' Supreme Divinity lightning constituting only one of the "weapons" that this he was said to have used. He was represented through the shape of a handsome sculptural male, occasionally wearing a beard. Gebeleizis provoked thunder and lightning. In some representations, he appears seated on a majestic throne, while in others on horseback, holding an arch in his left hand. A snake is seen coming down versus the horse's head. He is also accompanied, at times, by a one-horned vulture. The vulture holds a fish in its beak symbolizing the named Divinity by itself, and also has a rabbit entrapped within its claws. This God embodies the Absolute Master upon Heaven and Earth, the Patron of military aristocracy. He might possess, though, some Uranian- Solar attributes. The Supreme God, the Great God Gebeleizis is also known under the nicknames of Derzelas, Derzis or the Thracian Knight (others consider "THE THRACIAN KNIGHT" as being a later apparition of some Hero, and not of a God). Other times, the God shows up in the hypostasis of a warrior horseman, accompanied by a faithful hound. He holds a spear as an insignia of power, which is ready to be thrown upon a wild boar from the horse's gallop. When not being shown under a warrior or hunter's appearance, he appears as a peaceful horseman, carrying either a torch or a cornu copia. Sometimes, he is presented as having three heads (Tricephalus), alike the accompanying hound, while othertimes as a blessing God, having his right hand's first three fingers risen or opened, the rest being tightened towards the upper palm. He shows up in these ways within all epigraphic and numismatic testimonies found at the ancient cities of Histria and Odesos (the latter presently called Varna). At Limanu (Constanta County), Derzelas appears shown on horseback, as he similarly may be seen on the Racatau and Zimnicea old pottery, or the Bucharest-Herastrau and Surcea (Constanta County again) discovered hoards. We shall also encounter him later throughout the Antique world, at the Macedonians -"Macedonian Horseman", while Greek Mithology would similarly carry him under the supreme name of Zeus. From Thracia, Gebeleizis' cult had spread to penetrate inside Asia Minor during 7th century B.C., where it was promptly assimilated by Armenians up to becoming their National Divinity, namely Vahagn or the God of War, most famous for his courage in slaying dragons. Vahagn was associated with lightning and thunder, being represented like an imposing man with hair and beard carved out of flames, while "his eyes were scintillating like two Suns". Ultimately, Gebeleizis or "the Thracian Knight", who is to be found in other people's Mithologies as Zeus or Vahagn, has been logically assimilated by Christian nations to become... Saint George (or Gheorghe) killing the Dragon! The Supreme male Divinity of Geta-Dacians Gebeleizis, later referred to, at the Lower-Danube area Thracians under the likely Greekenized name of Zbelsurdos, also goes by having a feminine alter-ego, a double named BENDIS, the Great Goddess. Ancient representations, recently discovered, show her to our eyes through the face of a full-figured woman, with prominent cheek bones and curly hair either plaited into two tresses or splitted into two big curls surrounding her lovely looks. Is it really possible that the Goddess Bendis, with her two very long blond tresses gently resting on her back, might actually be a predecessor of the fairy Ileana Cosanzeana, from the later-born popular tales of Romanians? In certain situations, the Goddess appears standing between two sacred animals, which are either deers-like, or between a buck and a snake. The Great Goddess Bendis was mostly adored by Thracian women, for she was embodying the Goddess of Moon, Forests and... Magical charms. A head of the Goddess was discovered at Costesti, while archaeological digging around ruins of the old Sarmisegetuza fortress has brought to light a burned-clay made medallion (measuring 10 cm in diameter and 1.5 cm thickness) showing a Goddess bust with a quiver on shoulder. One of her bronze made busts was discovered at Piatra Rosie, measuring 14.7 cm in height and 13 cm width. Besides the Supreme God Gebeleizis and the Great Goddess Bendis, Thracians have also had a Divinity of Flames and Fireplace and Guardian of the House, respectively the Goddess VESTA (or Hestia, Histia), to the veneration of whom Thracian houses were built strictly in a rectangular form with stoned or wooden walls. The floor was of trodden soil and had a "two-angle" roof. Not far away from Tartaria region, inside the triangular area of the three "Crish" rivers, astounding remains of the first surface dwellings dating from as early as fifth millenium B.C. have been recently uncovered, meaning they were no less than 7000 years old! These types of dwellings, which would spread afterwards through the entire world, indeed seemed to have been the result of a cult dedicated to this Goddess. The walls were initially meant to protect the sacred space within, and in the middle, flames were lit in a fireplace which were constantly taken care of to keep alight. The fourth millenium B.C. wasn't exactly a lucky one for the future-to-be Romanian people, stated the experts referring themselves to the crumbling period of the legendary continental bridge which was linking Europe with Asia Minor. This bridge collapsed under the waters of the Mediterranean Sea, thus leaving plenty of room for the formation of a brand new sea, named the Egean Sea. This generated as well a multitude of larger and smaller islands. Due to the very existence of this terrestrial linking bridge, both ancient and modern Greek historians were entitled to acknowledge the possibility of a migration for the Thracian population from the Pontic-Danubian region to the South of the Balcan Peninsula, and from there, towards Asia Minor itself, reaching to some lands around the Eastern Mediterranean such as Bytinia, Missia, Phrygia, Throada, Lydia etc. As it is known today, the fate of each of these civilizations evolved quite differently. Some "lost themselves" among more numerous tribes and completely "vanished" as national identity inside History's immense pit called "forgetfulness"-the Hititians, for instance. Others disappeared at vast distances, as is the Trojans' case, about whom a legend (Virgilius' "Aeneida") tells how Aeneas, the Thracian, guided the survivors of Troja fortress' doomsday up to the Tybrus River's narrow valley on the Italic Peninsula, where they took over Seven "eternal" Hills and afterwards, gave them Thracian "Latin" names. Still, another legend states that within the Carpathian Space, an extremely wise sheperd, Zalmoxis, showed up who was to take over "the Noble Laws" (that is, the "Beleagin's Code") from the Goddess Hestia (or Vesta). Zalmoxis-A PROPHETICAL GOD OR A WORSHIPPED PROPHET Here are Herodotus' testimonies on Zalmoxis: "According to what I have found out from the (ancient) Greeks living on the shores of Helespontus and Pontus Euxinus (which is today known as the Black Sea), the Zalmoxis whom I'm talking about, being just a mortal, was actually a former slave on Samos Island, specifically belonging to Phytagoras, son of Menesarcos. Being granted, afterwards, free man's status from his grateful master, he would skillfully amass large riches and would return to his homeland after accumulating enough wealth, where he would build a large mansion meant to host important gatherings and personally receiving these people and summoning the Thracian land's leaders to party. Meanwhile, preaching everybody that none of them, or their descendants would ever die for real, but everybody was to go to a certain place instead, where they would indeed live forever and enjoy all the finest meals and pleasures which they would only dream of. As he was accomplishing all the already mentioned deeds and was saying such things to the crowds, he secretly ordered an underground residence to be constructed for himself. When it was ready, Zalmoxis disappeared from the nucleus of Thracian social life and descended to his underground "bunker". He lived there for about three or four years. The Thracians thought he had vanished and wanted him back dearly, lamenting his loss as if he were really dead. At the end of his 4th year, Zalmoxis appeared once more to their eyes, thus managing to make his teachings believable through some kind of "personal example". Regarding Zalmoxis' background itself and his underground hiding shelter, I personally don't fully reject everything that is said, but don't believe too much in it either. It seems to me, though, that he might have actually lived many years before Phytagoras' time.So let Zalmoxis be well, whatever he represents, either a human being or some Demon of the Geta (namely Thracian) people" (Herodotus, "Histories", volume IV, pages 94-95). As we can see, the naive identification of God Zalmoxis with one of Pythagoras' slaves, who became afterwards free and wealthy, is being disputed even by Herodotus himself. Why should WE believe it then?... Similar accounts are also made by Hellanicos from Mithilenes, by the Great Plato, Mnasea (this last one was even considering Zalmoxis as the Eternity God Chronos!), Diodorus from Sicily, Strabon mostly, Apulleius, Lucianus from Samosatas, Orygenes, Porphyrius (232-304) and Julian the Apostle, Aeneas from Ghaza, and Hesychios from Alexandria. All of them heard and discussed about Zalmoxis who remained within people's memories as a God of the so-called "Underworld Kingdom", as being otherwise suggestively described by the Romanian National Poet, Mihai Eminescu, in his poem "The Phantoms": "On a huge Throne carved in rock, sits rigidly, pale, yet straight, With his hand holding the Staff, the Pagan and righteous Priest..." Lithuanians, at their turn, are going to take over "our" Zalmoxis as God Zemeuks, the name signifying "Land" or "Country". He still represents the God of the Earth's depths, but nevertheless the God of vegetation and fertility, the God of ploughmen and sheperds. But, if Gebeleizis was promising them only the immortality of spirit (for the ritual of cremating dead ones on funeral pyres is associated to his cult), Zalmoxis was yet overgranting to his faithfuls COMPLETE IMMORTALITY, both for the soul and body (the funeral procedure being, in this case, burial), while the believers' spirits would keep on living inside the Kingdom of the Underworld God (just alike Harald's, the teen-ager King, next to Maria's, the Danubian Queen, from the same poem "Phantoms" of our Great Eminescu). The concept of Zamolxian immortality was representing the very Ethics' concept among all young warriors of the "the Dacian (Thracian) Wolves", who were enjoying the imminent Death's perspective and were even laughing at it, precisely in order to show their indifference towards such an event and their looking forward to faster reaching God's underground meadows. These youngsters